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For many students of the New Testament, the dating of Galatians is tedious work which does not seem to have much pay-off in reading the book itself. Whether the book is addressed to Northern or Southern Galatia or before or after Acts 15 seems like a pointless question, but it is in fact important since it will influence how we read the conflict between Paul and Peter in Gal 2. On the one hand, Gal could refer to the Jerusalem Council Acts The issue is gentile circumcision and the consensus reached according to Gal 2 is that Gentiles are not required to submit.
Recently, I taught a bible study course through the Galatian epistle of the Galatian epistle certainly has a great deal to do with the dating of its.
There is a scholarly consensus that Galatians was written by Paul, however, there is not a consensus as to the date of writing, with estimates running from the late 40s to the late 50s. The letter to the Galatians does not mention the Jerusalem Council, and the omission is telling. Paul is extremely emotional in Galatians in his opposition to the “Judaizers”, Jewish Christians who followed him to Galatia and had been teaching the gentile believers there that they needed to be circumcised and follow the law of Moses.
Paul was adamently opposed to that idea, and it was this controversy that led to the Jerusalem Council of 50 A. The council’s verdict went essentially in Paul’s favor, indicating that gentiles did not need to be circumcised or follow the law of Moses, but requiring them to abstain from food offered to idols, from eating meat with blood, and from sexual immorality Acts , restrictions necessary to allow fellowship between Jewish and gentile Christians.
The Letter to the Galatians There is a scholarly consensus that Galatians was written by Paul, however, there is not a consensus as to the date of writing, with estimates running from the late 40s to the late 50s. Galatians is mostly biographical, and to date the book of Galatians it is necessary to fit the events described there into the overall New Testament timeline. In Gal , Paul describes his stay in Arabia and Damascus after his conversion.
He says that after three years he went to Jerusalem Gal , an event corresponding to Acts , which we have dated to 36 A.
Galatians, Epistle to The
Thanks for posting this, Christian. My own approach to dating Coptic MSS is to leave it open. In all of these I give no date, stating that the whole business of dating Coptic MSS is notoriously difficult. The 4th-5th century date is just a guess based on the general impression of the hand. It is possible that it is later than 4th-5th century, but I would disagree with what you say about epsilon and kappa.
doctrine with leading to loose living. TIME AND PLACE OF WRITING: Dating Galatians is affected by one’s view of whether the churches of Galatia were located.
The first point to note about Galatians is that it is a letter, and it is worth pausing to consider what this means. A letter is a particular type of literature, written by one party, the author, to communicate with the other party, the recipient. A letter therefore serves a very specific and immediate purpose, concerning business which somehow connects the two parties to one another.
There will always be information presupposed between the two parties which any other reader can only surmise or reconstruct incompletely. However, later in the convoluted opening sentence Paul adds and all the brothers who are with me. These brothers are not identified in any other way, but presumably refer either to the church in the place where Paul wrote or to his companions in mission at the time of writing.
We may surmise where and when Paul wrote Galatians, but we cannot be absolutely certain on this point, as we will discuss shortly. However, we will also notice, when we look at the text of the letter, that Paul frequently uses the first person singular to refer to himself, and much of the first two chapters is concerned very directly with his status and authority. Whatever part the otherwise unidentified brothers may have played, Galatians is to all intents and purposes written by Paul, or at least with his playing a dominant role in its composition.
The letter is addressed to the churches of the Galatians ; the problem is that Galatians is a loosely defined geographical area in what is now Turkey. During the first century this entire region was under Roman rule, and divided into provinces which did not coincide precisely with the boundaries of the political entities over which Persians, Greeks, Armenians, and Romans had fought for several centuries.
In Acts it is recounted that Barnabas and Paul established churches in the cities of Antioch, Iconium, Lystra, and Derbe; while Antioch was in Pisidia and the other cities in Lycaonia, so far as Roman provincial boundaries at the time were concerned, but were nonetheless within a wider region commonly known as Galatia. Another theory, founded upon Acts , is that Paul, Silas, and Timothy undertook a mission in Phrygia and Galatia, which would presumably refer to parts of Galatia to the north of the cities mentioned in Acts , perhaps as far north as Ancyra.
Acts provides no further details of this mission, and does not identify any cities in which Paul established churches.
A key question is how to relate them to the accounts in Acts whose own accuracy is itself debated. For this letter the focus is on how events described in Gal 1 and 2 relate to Acts and in particular whether the letter was written before or after the Jerusalem Council in Acts Others, especially those favouring North Galatia, view it as later, probably in the mid 50s eg AD.
Author – Date: The letter to the Galatians claims the apostle Paul as its writer (, ), and this is attested by the brief autobiography in , as well as by.
Book of Galatians Explained. Go To Galatians Index. Title: Galatians derives its title pros Galatas , from the region in Asia Minor modern Turkey , where the churches addressed were located. The term Galatia was originally used in an ethnic manner, referring to north central Asia Minor settled by the invading Gauls. While it is uncertain whether the letter was sent to North or South Galatia, this problem has little bearing on the value or understanding of the epistle.
Paul was born in Tarsus, a city in the province of Cilicia, not far from Galatia. Under the famous rabbi, Gamaliel, Paul received a thorough training in the Old Testament Scriptures and in the rabbinic traditions at Jerusalem Acts His 3 missionary journeys and trip to Rome turned Christianity from a faith that included only a small group of Palestinian Jewish believers into an Empire wide phenomenon.
Galatians is one of 13 inspired letters he addressed to Gentile congregations or his fellow workers. In chapter 2, Paul described his visit to the Jerusalem Council of Acts 15 see note on , so he must have written Galatians after that event. Since most scholars date the Jerusalem Council about A. If the letter was sent to North Galatia, Paul and his missionary team planted the Galatian churches during his second missionary journey.
Bible Study – Galatians
Galatians may be the first letter written by the apostle Paul, and so we are going to take it up now in our survey of the New Testament. The date of Galatians depends to a great extent on its destination. An older view holds that Galatians was written to churches in north-central Asia Minor, where Gauls had settled when they invaded the area in the third century B. Paul supposedly visited this area on his second missionary journey, though Acts contains no reference to such a visit.
Dating the letter to the Galatians is in many respects contingent upon its destination. If Galatians was addressed to the churches of Iconium, Lystra, and Derbe.
There is another pressing question, however, that has been asked at the outset of this same letter. This question may or may not have a similar bearing on interpretation and application to my previously recommended inquiries, but the question is an important one nonetheless. The perceived destination of this letter can have an impact on the interpretation of such a text, but an interest in a destination of the Galatian epistle certainly has a great deal to do with the dating of its authorship.
Therefore, questions regarding the recipients and the destination of any biblical text are important for more than just critical scholars. In the first century B. Having been willed to Rome in 25 B. According to scholars, there are only two conceivable destinations for this letter.
Who Were the Galatians?
The Epistle to the Galatians , often shortened to Galatians , is the ninth book of the New Testament. Scholars have suggested that this is either the Roman province of Galatia in southern Anatolia , or a large region defined by an ethnic group of Celtic people in central Anatolia. Paul is principally concerned with the controversy surrounding gentile Christians and the Mosaic Law during the Apostolic Age.
Paul argues that the gentile Galatians do not need to adhere to the tenets of the Mosaic Law, particularly religious male circumcision , by contextualizing the role of the law in light of the revelation of Christ.
The dating of Galatians, as well as that of Paul’s initial visit there, is debated and difficult. The North Galatian theory has, in my view, the better.
Historically, Paul’s Letter to the Galatians has been foundational for Christian doctrine, preaching, and practice. It strongly influenced Luther’s understanding of justification by faith, which helped launch the Reformation. From the earliest days, Galatians has been accepted as an important letter from the pen of the Apostle Paul. Among the earliest references to it are found in Clement, Ignatius, and Polycarp. It is considered one of Paul’s most important epistles.
No serious challenge to its authenticity has ever been entertained, even in the last century, when the authenticity of so many others was called into question. But that doesn’t mean it has escaped controversy. One of the issues yet to be resolved to universal satisfaction is the very location of the Galatian churches to which Paul was writing.
The original kingdom of the Galatians was confined after a defeat at the hands of Attalus I, king of Pergamum about BC into an area which had formerly belonged to Phrygia. Their capital became Ancyra the modern capital of the Turkish Republic.